The amount of compensatory sweating depends on the patient, the damage that the white rami communicans incurs, and the amount of cell body reorganization in the spinal cord after surgery.
Other potential complications include inadequate resection of the ganglia, gustatory sweating, pneumothorax, cardiac dysfunction, post-operative pain, and finally Horner’s syndrome secondary to resection of the stellate ganglion.

After severing the cervical sympathetic trunk, the cells of the cervical sympathetic ganglion undergo transneuronic degeneration
After severing the sympathetic trunk, the cells of its origin undergo complete disintegration within a year.

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Decreased HRV is predictive of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in a variety of disease states

Water immersion-induced skin wrinkling (WISW) is dependent on intact peripheral sympathetic function. WISW was hypothesized to reflect autonomic function in subjects with- out peripheral neuropathy. We prospectively studied 70 healthy subjects (aged 31 88 years, 63% females) without cardiovascular risk factors or neurological disease. All sub- jects underwent short-term heart rate variability (HRV) stud- ies. Time and frequency domain variables were derived in- cluding the HRV index. WISW was graded using a previously validated scale of 1–4 of which 18.6% of subjects exhibited grade 1 (minimal) WISW and 35.7% had grade 2 WISW. On multivariate analysis using the HRV index, WISW was inde- pendently related to height and the HRV index. We conclude that WISW is related to central autonomic function.

Although the mechanism is not fully understood, WISW is felt to be caused by passive diffusion of water across the stratum corneum into the sweat ducts, which in turn alters electrolyte balance, decreases membrane stabilization, increases sympathetic neural firing and stimulates vasoconstriction [1–3, 8].WISW is decreased in diabetic patients and in patients after cervical sympathectomy [4, 9].
Heart rate variability (HRV) is the beat-to-beat variation in cardiac cycle length due to autonomic influence on the sinus node. Decreased HRV is predictive of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in a variety of disease states[5]. The influence of the central nervous system activity on autonomic function suggests that HRV may be a useful prognostic indicator in patients with cerebrovascular events [6].

Cardiology 2010;116:247–250 DOI: 10.1159/000316043
Received: May 10, 2010
Accepted after revision: May 28, 2010 Published online: August 18, 2010