The amount of compensatory sweating depends on the patient, the damage that the white rami communicans incurs, and the amount of cell body reorganization in the spinal cord after surgery.
Other potential complications include inadequate resection of the ganglia, gustatory sweating, pneumothorax, cardiac dysfunction, post-operative pain, and finally Horner’s syndrome secondary to resection of the stellate ganglion.
www.ubcmj.com/pdf/ubcmj_2_1_2010_24-29.pdf

After severing the cervical sympathetic trunk, the cells of the cervical sympathetic ganglion undergo transneuronic degeneration
After severing the sympathetic trunk, the cells of its origin undergo complete disintegration within a year.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0442.1967.tb00255.x/abstract

Monday, February 15, 2016

because bilateral ETS causes the suppression of cardiovascular response to exercise, patients that has been treated with ETS need to be observed during high-level exercise

CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF BILATERAL ENDOSCOPIC TRANSTHORACIC SYMPATHICOTOMY AT REST AND DURING EXERCISE IN PATIENTS WITH PALMAR HYPERHIDROSIS

AUTHORS: Kazushi Takaishi, MD, Etsuo Tabo, MD, Kazuo Nakanishi, MD, Masao Soutani, MD,PhD, Kyoji Tsuno, MD, Tatsuru Arai, MDAFFILIATION: Ehime University, Shigenobu, Japan.
INTRODUCTION: Palmar hyperhidrosis is characterized by an overactivity of the sympathetic fibers passing through T2 and T3 ganglia. Although endoscopic transthoracic sympathicotomy (ETS) is an effective treatment for palmar hyperhidrosis, the partial cardiac denervation that follows may cause impairment of cardiovascular function at rest and during exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular response to exercise between patients with palmar hyperhidrosis and a normal control population, and to examine the effects of ETS on cardiovascular response in patients with palmar hyperhidrosis.
METHODS: After institutional approval and informed consent, 16 patients with palmar hyperhidrosis undergoing bilateral T2- T4 ETS and 10 healthy volunteers were studied. First, before ETS administration, heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and serum catecholamine (SC) at rest were measured in the patient group and in normal subjects. Then, changes in HR, BP and SC as a result of isometric handgrip exercise (IHE) were measured in both groups. Finally, HR and BP at rest, changes in HR and BP as a result of general exercise (GE), and changes in HR, BP and SC as a result of IHE were measured in the patient group both one day before and one day after ETS was administered.RESULTS: Although there was no significant difference in HR and BP at rest between the patient group before ETS and normal subjects, the value of serum adrenaline in the patient group (0.6 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that in normal subjects (2.6 ng/ml, p<0 .01="" a="" after="" and="" as="" at="" before="" both="" bp="" changes="" decreased="" ets.="" ets="" ge="" groups="" hr="" ihe="" in="" of="" p="" rest="" result="" sc="" significantly="" similar="" span="" to="" were="">
DISCUSSION: HR and BP at rest and cardiovascular response to exercise were similar in patients with palmar hyperhidrosis before ETS and in the normal control population. Therefore, we consider that patients with palmar hyperhidrosis have no overactivity of the sympathetic nerve. However, because bilateral ETS causes the suppression of cardiovascular response to exercise, patients that has been treated with ETS need to be observed during high-level exercise.

K Takaishi, E Tabo, K Nakanishi, M Soutani, K Tsuno, T Arai:
Cardiovascular effects of bilateral endoscopic transthoracic sympathicotomy at rest and during exercise in patients with palmar hyperhidrosis.
International Anesthesia Research Society
The 74th Clinical and Scientific Congress 2000

Sunday, February 14, 2016

Damage to part of these feedback loops leads to exaggerated pressor responses to stress

 1993 Jul-Aug;55(4):339-46.

Abnormal stress responses in patients with diseases affecting the sympathetic nervous system.

Abstract

Diseases that cause malfunction of the sympathetic nervous system provide insight into how the sympathetic nerves normally modulate responses to stress. This paper discusses insight from a number of such diseases. Transection of the cervical spinal cord leads to autonomic dysreflexia. This syndrome causes episodic hypertension in quadriplegic patients from excess sympathetic activity reflexly activated by bowel or bladder distention. These patients lack cerebral control of spinal sympathetic reflexes. Radiotherapy to the neck can destroy the arterial baroreceptors that monitor blood pressure fluctuations. Patients who lack baroreceptors have exaggerated blood pressure responses to stress. They have episodes of hypertension and hypotension that cause headaches and dizziness. Diabetics and uremics often develop a peripheral sympathetic neuropathy. They have postural hypotension and diminished blood pressure responses to stress. They are often unable to tolerate heat, exercise, or fluid deprivation. Patients with heart failure deplete sympathetic neuronal norepinephrine stores. The continual stress of heart failure diminishes their ability to respond to further stresses such as standing upright or exercising. Patients with diseases of the sympathetic nervous system illustrate that everyday occurrences such as a change in posture or ambient temperature are stresses requiring a marked change in sympathetic nervous activity. Both physical and psychological stresses elicit large initial sympathetic neuronal responses that are subsequently damped by feedback inhibition from structures such as the baroreceptors. Damage to part of these feedback loops leads to exaggerated pressor responses to stress.

Saturday, November 21, 2015

Our results show that [3H]substance P binding in the intermediolateral cell column is dependent on the integrity of sympathetic postganglionic neurons

Guanethidine-induced destruction of sympathetic postganglionic neurons in neonatal rats leads to transneuronal degeneration of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Using this model, we have been able to show a approximately 35% decrease in [3H]substance P ([3H]SP) binding in the intermediolateral cell column--suggesting that sympathetic preganglionic neurons possess substance P receptors. Our results show that [3H]substance P binding in the intermediolateral cell column is dependent on the integrity of sympathetic postganglionic neurons.

Brain Res. 1985 Apr 29;193-6. pii:0006-8993(85)90146-5.
Reduction of [3H]substance P binding in the intermediolateral cell column after sympathectomy. Takano Y,Loewy AD
https://www.gcbi.com.cn/gclib/html/pubmed/detail/2581658

https://archive.is/bfPLv

Substance P is an important element in pain perception. The sensory function of substance P is thought to be related to the transmission of pain information into the central nervous system. Substance P coexists with the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in primary afferents that respond to painful stimulation.[16] Substance P has been associated with the regulation of mood disorders, anxiety, stress,[17] reinforcement,[18] neurogenesis,[19] respiratory rhythm,[20] neurotoxicity, nausea and emesis,[21] pain, and nociception.[22] Substance P and other sensory neuropeptides can be released from the peripheral terminals of sensory nerve fibers in the skin, muscle, and joints. It is proposed that this release is involved in neurogenic inflammation, which is a local inflammatory response to certain types of infection or injury.[23] The regulatory function of SP also involves the regulation of its high-affinity receptor, NK-1. Substance P receptor antagonists may have important therapeutic applications in the treatment of a variety of stress-related illnesses, in addition to their potential as analgesics.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Substance_P

Patients report that they feel less anxious in stressful situations. Stage fright is reduced.


The results are usually immediate and a surprise to the patient who finds him/herself dry and warm for the first time in many years. The procedure is almost always successful. If the patient has reported plantar (foot) hyperhidrosis, in two out of three cases this is resolved by the surgery also. Patients report that they feel less anxious in stressful situations. Stage fright is reduced. The results are usually permanent. 


Snipping the nerve may stop 'flight-or-fight' stress response

What do sweaty palms and abnormal heart rhythms have in common? Both can be initiated by the nervous system during an adrenaline-driven "flight-or-fight" stress reaction, when the body senses danger.

Hyperhidrosis, an abnormal flight-or-fight response of the sympathetic nervous system that causes excessively sweaty palms may also contribute to problems like dangerous irregular rhythms from the lower chambers of the heart, known as ventricular arrhythmias.

UCLA cardiologists have now found that surgery to snip nerves associated with the sympathetic nervous system on both the left and right sides of the chest may be helpful in stopping dangerous, incessant ventricular arrhythmias — known as an "electrical storm" — when other treatment methods have failed. This same type of surgery has been used for years to alleviate hyperhidrosis.

The UCLA team's findings are reported in the Dec. 27–Jan. 3 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. The study is one of the first to assess the impact of bilateral cardiac sympathetic denervation (BCSD), surgery on both sides of the heart, to control arrhythmias. The research builds on previous work at UCLA in which a similar procedure was performed only on the left side. But for some patients to obtain relief, the researchers said, it must be done bilaterally. 


Thursday, October 22, 2015

5 (11%) thermoregulation difficulties, 4 (9%) a sensation of left arm paresthesia, and 3 (7%) sympathetic flight/fright response loss

Patients with LQTS (N=40) and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (N=7) underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic left cardiac sympathetic denervation, with a median follow-up of 29 months (range, 1-67 months). Clinical records were reviewed; 44 patients completed a telephone survey. Of 47 patients (53%), 25 were preoperatively symptomatic (15 syncope, 7 near-drowning, and 3 resuscitated sudden death). Indications for left cardiac sympathetic denervation included β-blocker intolerance (15; 32%) or nonadherence (10; 21%) and disease factors (18; 38%; catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia [6], near-drowning [2], exertional syncope [1], symptoms on therapy [2], LQT3 [1], QTc>520 ms [6]). Other indications were competitive sports participation (2), family history of sudden death (1), and other (1). Median QTc did not change among patients with LQTS (461±60 to 476±54 ms; P=0.49). Side effects were reported by 42 of 44 (95%). Twenty-nine patients (66%) reported dryness on left side, 26 (59%) a Harlequin-type (unilateral) facial flush, 24 (55%) contralateral hyperhidrosis, 17 (39%) differential hand temperatures, 5 (11%) permanent and 4 (9%) transient ptosis, 5 (11%) thermoregulation difficulties, 4 (9%) a sensation of left arm paresthesia, and 3 (7%) sympathetic flight/fright response loss. 
 2015 Oct;8(5):1151-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.115.003159. Epub 2015 Jul 29.

Physical and Psychological Consequences of Left Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation in Long-QT Syndrome and Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia.

Sunday, August 9, 2015

Sympathectomy - a neurocardiologic disorder

Bilateral thoracic sympathectomies or sympathotomies are done for refractory palmar hyperhidrosis [85–87]. Iontophoresis, botulinum toxin injection, and glycopyrrolate cream are alternatives. Because sweating is mediated mainly by sympathetic cholinergic fibers, autonomic neurosurgery is usually effective; however, a variety of expected and unexpected consequences can result, including ectopic (e.g., plantar) hyperhidrosis, gustatory sweating, Horner syndrome, and decreased heart rate responses to exercise. The latter seems to be related to partial cardiac denervation [88]. Anecdotally, fatigue, altered mood, blunted emotion, and decreased ability to concentrate can develop after bilateral thoracic sympathectomies. 
β-Adrenoceptor blockers are a mainstay of treatment for CPVT. An automated defibrillator may have to be implanted. Treatment for CPVT also includes left sympathectomy. Such treatment leaves open the theoretical possibilities of denervation supersensitivity of cardiac adrenoceptors and compensatory activation of the adrenomedullary hormonal system; however, plasma levels of catecholamines have not been assessed in CPVT with or without therapeutic cardiac denervation.

Table 1. Neurocardiologic disorders that feature abnormal catecholaminergic function
Disorders where abnormal catecholaminergic function is etiologic Hypofunctional states without central neurodegeneration
Acute, primary
Neurocardiogenic syncope Spinal cord transection Acute pandysautonomia Sympathectomy
Acute, secondary
Drug-related (e.g., alcohol, tricyclic antidepressant, chemotherapy, opiate, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, sympatholytics, general anesthesia)
Seizures
Guillain–Barre syndrome Alcohol
Chronic, primary
Pure autonomic failure
Horner's syndrome
Familial dysautonomia
Carotid sinus syncope
Adie's syndrome Dopamine-β-hydroxylase deficiency
Sympathectomy 

Thursday, July 30, 2015

the clinical results of both surgical and neurolityc sympathectomy are uncertain



However, the clinical results of both surgical and neurolityc sympathectomy are uncertain. Indeed these procedures lead to a redistribution of the blood flow in the lower limbs from the muscle to the skin, with a concomitant fall of the regional resistance, mainly in undamaged vessels. The blood flow will be diverted into this part of the vascular tree, so that a "stealing" of the blood flow may occur.
Vito A. Peduto, Giancarlo Boero, Antonio Marchi, Riccardo Tani
Bilateral extensive skin necrosis of the lower limbs following prolonged epidural blockade


Anaesthesia 1976; 31: 1068-75.

Friday, June 19, 2015

sympathectomy created imbalance of autonomic activity and functional changes of the intrathoracic organs

Surgical thoracic sympathectomy such as ESD (endoscopic thoracic sympathectic denervation) or heart transplantation can result in an imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities and result in functional changes in the intrathoracic organs.

Therefore, the procedures affecting sympathetic nerve functions, such as epidural anesthesia, ESD, and heart transplantation, may cause an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activities (1, 6, 16, 17). Recently, it has been reported that ESD results in functional changes of the intrathoracic organs.


In conclusion, our study demonstrated that ESD adversely affected lung function early after surgery and the BHR was affected by an imbalance of autonomic activity created by bilateral ESD in patients with primary focal hyperhidrosis.
Journal of Asthma, 46:276–279, 2009
http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02770900802660949

Monday, June 15, 2015

sympathectomized subjects act but do not feel emotional

in the absence of autonomic arousal, behavior that appears emotional will not be experienced as emotional


"In the presence of a barking dog, for example, the sympathectomized cats manifested almost all of the signs of feline rage. Finally, Cannon notes the report of Dana (1921) that a patient with a spinal-cord lesion and almost totally without visceral sensation still manifested emotionality.
For either the Jamesian or the present formulation such data are crucial, since both views demand visceral arousal as a necessary condition for emotional arousal. When faced with this evidence, James's defenders (e.g., Wenger, 1950; Mandler, 1962) have consistently made the point that the apparently emotional behavior manifested by sympathectomizied animals and men is well-learned behavior, acquired long before sympathectomy. There is a dual implication in this position: first, that sympathetic arousal facilitates the acquisition of emotional behavior, and second, that sympathectomized subjects act but do not feel emotional. There is a small but growing evidence supporting these contentions. Wynne and Solomon (1955) have demonstrated that sympathectomized dogs acquire an avoidance response considerably more slowly than control dogs. Further, on extinction trials most of their 13 sympathectomized animals extinguished quickly, whereas not a single one of the 30 control dogs gave any indication of extinction over 200 trials. Of particular interest are two dogs who were sympathectomized after they had acquired the avoidance response. On extinction trials these two animals behaved precisely like the control dogs - giving no indication of extinction. Thus, when deprived of visceral innervation, animals are quite slow in acquiring emotionally-linked avoidance responses and in general, quick to extinguish such responses." (p. 163)

"A line of thought stimulated by the Wynne and Solomon (1955) and the Hohmann (1962) studies may indeed be the answer to Cannon's observations that there can be emotional behavior without visceral activity. From the evidence of these studies, it would appear, first, that autonomic arousal greatly facilitates the acquisition of emotional behavior but it is not necessary for its maintenance if the behavior is acquired prior to sympathectomy; and second, that in the absence of autonomic arousal, behavior that appears emotional will not be experienced as emotional." (p. 167)

Psychobiological Approaches to Social Behavior

P. Herbert LeidermanDavid ShapiroHarvard Medical School. Dept. of PsychiatryUnited States. Office of Naval Research - 1964 - 203 pages

Tuesday, April 28, 2015

Post-sympathectomy neuralgia is proposed here to be a complex neuropathic and central deafferentation/reafferentation syndrome

The formation of the spinal nerve from the dor...
The formation of the spinal nerve from the dorsal and ventral roots. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
 1996 Jan;64(1):1-9.

Post-sympathectomy neuralgia: hypotheses on peripheral and central neuronal mechanisms.

Abstract

Post-sympathectomy neuralgia is proposed here to be a complex neuropathic and central deafferentation/reafferentation syndrome dependent on: (a) the transection, during sympathectomy, of paraspinal somatic and visceral afferent axons within the sympathetic trunk; (b) the subsequent cell death of many of the axotomized afferent neurons, resulting in central deafferentation; and (c) the persistent sensitization of spinal nociceptive neurons by painful conditions present prior to sympathectomy. Viscerosomatic convergence, collateral sprouting of afferents, and mechanisms associated with sympathetically maintained pain are all proposed to be important to the development of the syndrome.

Sunday, April 26, 2015

Sympathectomy and parasympathectomy leads to the hyperfunction of the serotoninergic system and pathology

We studied the balance of activity of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and serotoninergic divisions of the autonomic nervous system in the regulation of the heart function in rabbits. High activities of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system are associated with antagonistic interactions between them. Moderation of activity of these systems could be accompanied by activation of the serotoninergic system. Physiological sympathectomy and parasympathectomy lead to hyperfunction of the serotoninergic system and pathology.

Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. 140, No. 5, 2005 PHYSIOLOGY

Disturbances in brain serotonergic systems result in a range of phenotypes such as depression, suicide and anxiety disorders.
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2202/10/50

"The effect is a normalization (?!) of the threshold to trigger facial blushing especially in social situations.”

Clin Auton Res (2003) 13 [Suppl 1] : I/26 – I/30 

https://archive.today/xyCDr

Unforeseeable and unacceptable complications (of sweaty hand surgery)

Thorac Surg Clin. 2008 May;18(2):193-207.Links

Side effects and complications of surgery for hyperhidrosis.

Most of the difficulties associated with hyperhidrosis surgery are due to unavoidable side effects and unforeseeable and unacceptable complications. Careful patient selection is important before surgery so surgeons can avoid some of these pitfalls.
Patients should also be fully informed of all potential side effects and complications before surgical treatment.

Saturday, April 25, 2015

significant adverse effects on cardiopulmonary physiology

Because of technologic advances and improved postoperative recovery, endoscopic surgery has become the technique of choice for many thoracic surgical procedures6and 25; however, endoscopic visualization of intrathoracic structures requires retraction or collapse of the ipsilateral lung, which can have significant adverse effects on cardiopulmonary physiology. These cardiopulmonary changes can be further affected by the pathophysiologic changes associated with the disease process requiring the surgical procedure.

Because acute changes in cardiopulmonary function can compromise patient safety severely, a clear understanding of the dynamic interaction between the anesthetic–surgical technique and patient physiology is essential. This article discusses the effect of thoracoscopic surgery and the impact of various anesthetic interventions on cardiovascular and pulmonary physiology. In addition, some recommendations for “damage control” are made.
Anesthesiology Clinics of North America
Volume 19, Issue 1, 1 March 2001, Pages 141-152

Friday, January 30, 2015

Thoracic sympathectomy for peripheral vascular disease can lead to severe bronchospasm and excessive bronchial secretions

 2015 Jan-Feb;32(1):73-5. doi: 10.4103/0970-2113.148458.

Thoracic sympathectomy for peripheral vascular disease can lead to severe bronchospasm and excessive bronchial secretions.

A 57-year-old male patient suffering from Buerger's disease presented with pre-gangrenous changes in right foot and ischemic symptoms in right hand. Computed tomographic angiography revealed diffuse distal disease not suitable for vascular bypass and angioplasty. Right lumbar sympathectomy was done using a retroperitoneal approach followed 1 year later by right thoracic sympathectomy using a transaxillary approach. Postoperatively, the patient had severe bronchospasm and excessive secretions in the respiratory tract resistant to theophylline and sympathomimetic group of drugs and without any clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence of infection. The patient was started on anticholinergics in anticipation that sympathectomy might have lead to unopposed cholinergic activity and the symptoms improved rapidly. The patient recovered well and was discharged on 10(th) post-operative day.

Saturday, January 17, 2015

peripheral sympathectomy causes a dramatic increase in NGF levels in the denervated organs

Increased Nerve Growth Factor Messenger RNA and Protein

Peripheral NGF mRNA and protein levels following
sympathectomy
It has been shown previously that peripheral sympathectomy
causes a dramatic increase in NGF levels in the denervated
organs
 (Yap et al., 1984; Kanakis et al., 1985; Korsching and
Thoenen, 1985).
Increased ,&Nerve Growth Factor Messenger RNA and Protein
Levels in Neonatal Rat Hippocampus Following Specific Cholinergic
Lesions
Scott R. Whittemore,” Lena Liirkfors,’ Ted Ebendal,’ Vicky R. Holets, 2,a Anders Ericsson, and HBkan Persson
Departments of Medical Genetics and’ Zoology, Uppsala University, S-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden, and *Department of
Histology, Karolinska Institute, S-104 01 Stockholm, Sweden

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

Sympathectomy reduces emotional, stress-induced sweating indicating that it affects the stress-response

"...for reasons that are not obvious, many patients with facial hyperhidrosis and hyperhidrosis of the feet will benefit from upper thoracic sympathectomy. " 

(The Journal of Pain, Vol 1, No 4 (Winter), 2000: pp 261-264)

"Bilateral upper thoracic sympathicolysis is followed by redistribution of body perspiration, with a clear decrease in the zones regulated by mental or emotional stimuli, and an increase in the areas regulated by environmental stimuli, though we are unable to establish the etiology of this redistribution." 

(Surg Endosc. 2007 Nov;21(11):2030-3. Epub 2007 Mar 13.) 


"Palmar hyperhidrosis of clinical severity is a hallmark physical sign of many anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and especially social phobia.4 These are increasingly well understood and highly treatable neurobiological conditions. They are mod- erately heritable hard-wired fear responses,5 and are linked to amygdalar and locus coeruleus hyper-reactivity during psycho- social stress.6,7 Anxiety disorders are known to be much more common among women. This is consistent with the finding of Krogstad et al. that among controls sweating was reported more often by men, while among the hyperhidrosis group sweating was reported more often among women."

"A surgical treatment for anxiety-triggered palmar hyperhidrosis is not unlike treating tearfulness in major depression by severing the nerves to the lacrimal glands. We have recently made a similar argument advocating a psychopharmacological, rather then a surgi- cal, first-line treatment for blushing.9" 
(Journal Compilation - 2006 British Association of Dermatologists - British Journal of Dermatology 2006, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2006.07547.x)


Tuesday, January 6, 2015

sympathectomy leads to fluctuation of vasoconstriction alternated with vasodilation in an unstable fashion. Following sympathectomy the involved extremity shows regional hyper- and hypothermia


To quote Nashold, referring to sympathectomy, "Ill- advised surgery may tend to magnify the entire symptom complex"(38). Sympathectomy is aimed at achieving vasodilation. The neurovascular instability (vacillation and instability of vasoconstrictive function), leads to fluctuation of vasoconstriction alternated with vasodilation in an unstable fashion (39). Following sympathectomy the involved extremity shows regional hyper - and hypothermia in contrast, the blood flow and skin temperature on the non- sympathectomized side are significantly lower after exposure to a cold environment (39). This phenomenon may explain the reason for spread of CRPS. In the first four weeks after sympathectomy, the Laser Doppler flow study shows an increased of blood flow and hyperthermia in the extremity (40). Then, after four weeks, the skin temperature and vascular perfusion slowly decrease and a high amplitude vasomotor constriction develops reversing any beneficial effect of surgery (39). According to Bonica , "about a dozen patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) in whom I have carried out preoperative diagnostic sympathetic block with complete pain relief, sympathectomy produced either partial or no relief (40)

Chronic Pain: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy : Prevention and Management
Hooshang Hooshmand
CRC PressINC, 1993 - Medical - 202 pages

 2004 Oct;93(1-2):245-51. Epub 2004 Aug 25.

Infrared thermography for examination of skin temperature in the dorsal hand of office workers.


Reduced blood flow may contribute to the pathophysiology of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSD), such as tendinitis and carpal tunnel syndrome. The study objective was to characterize potential differences in cutaneous temperature, among three groups of office workers assessed by dynamic thermography following a 9-min typing challenge: those with UEMSD, with ( n=6) or without ( n=10) cold hands exacerbated by keyboard use, and control subjects ( n=12). Temperature images of the metacarpal region of the dorsal hand were obtained 1 min before typing, and during three 2-min sample periods [0-2 min (early), 3-5 min (middle), and 8-10 min (late)] after typing. Mean temperature increased from baseline levels immediately after typing by a similar magnitude, 0.7 (0.3) degrees C in controls and 0.6 (0.2) degrees C in UEMSD cases without cold hands, but only by 0.1 (0.3) degrees C in those with cold hands. Using paired t-tests for within group comparisons of mean dorsal temperature between successive imaging periods, three patterns of temperature change were apparent during 10 min following typing. Controls further increased mean temperature by 0.1 degrees C ( t-test, P=0.001) at 3-5 min post-typing before a late temperature decline of -0.3 degrees C ( t-test, P=0.04), while cases without cold hands showed no change from initial post-typing mean temperature rise during middle or late periods. In contrast, subjects with keyboard-induced cold hands had no change from initial post-typing temperature until a decrease at the late period of -0.3 degrees C ( t-test, P=0.06). Infrared thermography appears to distinguish between the three groups of subjects, with keyboard-induced cold hand symptoms presumably due, at least partially, to reduced blood flow.

Monday, January 5, 2015

cervical sympathectomy induces mast cell hyperplasia and increases histamine and serotonin content in the rat dura mater


Long-term superior cervical sympathectomy induces mast cell hyperplasia and increases histamine and serotonin content in the rat dura mater

Neuroscience 96 (2000) 205–213. 


Mast cells are critical players in allergic reactions, but they have also been shown to be important in immunity and recently also in inflammatory diseases, especially asthma. Migraines are episodic, typically unilateral, throbbing headaches that occur more frequently in patients with allergy and asthma implying involvement of meningeal and/or brain mast cells. These mast cells are located perivascularly, in close association with neurons especially in the dura, where they can be activated following trigeminal nerve, as well as cervical or sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation. Neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), hemokinin A, neurotensin (NT), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), and substance P (SP) activate mast cells leading to secretion of vasoactive, proinflammatory, and neurosensitizing mediators, thereby contributing to migraine pathogenesis. Brain mast cells can also secrete proinflammatory and vasodilatory molecules such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), selectively in response
to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a mediator of stress which is known to precipitate or exacerbate migraines. A better understanding of brain mast cell activation in migraines would be useful and could lead to several points of prophylactic intervention.

D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Brain Research Reviews 49 (2005) 65 – 76
The role of mast cells in migraine pathophysiology

Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Peripheral, autonomic regulation of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons in brain: putative implications for psychiatry and psychopharmacology

the new data seem to allow a better understanding of how autonomic vulnerability or visceral dysfunction may precipitate or aggravate mental symptoms and disorder.

T. H. Svensson1
(1)Department of Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Box 60 400, S-104 01 Stockholm, Sweden
Received: 20 June 1986 Revised: 25 November 1986
Psychopharmacology

"Locus coeruleus (LC) is located in the ventrallateral side of the fourth ventricle in the pontine, most of which are noradrenergic neurons projecting to the cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala nucleus, thalamus, hypothalamus, olfactory tubercles, hippocampus, cerebellum, and spinal cord (Swanson and Hartman, 1975). Norepinephrine (NE) released from the nerve terminal of LC neurons contributes to about 70% of the total extracellular NE in primates brain (Svensson, 1987). It plays important roles not only in arousal, attention, emotion control, and stress (reviewed in Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005Berridge and Waterhouse, 2003Bouret and Sara, 2005Nieuwenhuis et al., 2005Sara and Devauges, 1989Valentino and Van Bockstaele, 2008), but also in sensory information processing (Svensson, 1987). LC directly modulates the somatosensory information from the peripheral system. Under the stress condition, LC could completely inhibit the input from painful stimuli through the descending projection to the spinal cord (Stahl and Briley, 2004). Dys-regulations of LC neurotransmission have been suggested to be involved in physical painful symptoms, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleep/arousal disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease (reviewed in Berridge and Waterhouse, 2003Grimbergen et al., 2009Mehler and Purpura, 2009)."
http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fnmol.2012.00029/full

Monday, December 29, 2014

"Since changes in old age show some similarities with those following chronic sympathectomy"

"For the tracheobronchial tree. surgical (sympathectomy) and chemical (with 6-hydroxydopamine or reserpine) interventions lead to histological disappearance of the NA and NPY." (p.435)

" Prejunctional supersensitivity to norepinephrine after sympathectomy or cocaine treatment." (p. 410)

"Following chronic sympathectomy, substance P expression in presumptive sensory nerves....and NPY-expression in parasympathetic nerves ...to autonomically innervated tissues have both been shown to increase... Experiments using NGF and anti-NGF antibodies (Kessler et al., 1983) have suggested that competition between sympathetic and sensory fibers for target-derived growth factors could explain these apparently compensatory interactions,..." (p. 33)

"Since changes in old age show some similarities with those following chronic sympathectomy, it is tempting to consider whether alterations in one group of nerves in tissues with multiple innervations trigger reciprocal changes in other populations of nerves, perhaps through the mechanism of competition for common, target-produced growth factors. The nature of these changes is such that they could be nonadaptive and even destabilizing of cardiovascular homeostasis. (p. 34) 

Impairment of sympathetic and neural function has been claimed in cholesterol-fed animals (Panek et al., 1985). It has also been suggested that surgical sympathectomy may be useful in controlling atherosclerosis in certain arterial beds (Lichter et al., 1987). Defective cholinergic arteriolar vasodilation has been claimed in atherosclerotic rabbits (Yamamoto et al., 1988) and, in our laboratory, we have recently shown impairment of response to perivascular nerves supplying the mesenteric, hepatic, and ear arteries of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits (Burnstock et al., 1991). 
   Loss of adrenergic innervation has been reported in alcoholism (Low et al., 1975), amyloidosis (Rubenstein et al., 1983), orthostatic hypotension (Bannister et al., 1981), and subarachnoid haemorrhage (Hara and Kobayashi, 1988). Recent evidence shows that there is also a loss of noradrenergic innervation of blood vessels supplying malignant, as compared to benign, human intracranial tumours (Crockard et al., 1987). (p. 14)  

Vascular Innervation and Receptor MechanismsNew    Perspectives 

Rolf Uddman
Academic Press2 Dec 2012 - Medical - 498 pages

Saturday, December 27, 2014

sympathectomy leads to fluctuation of vasoconstriction alternated with vasodilation in an unstable fashion. Following sympathectomy the involved extremity shows regional hyper - and hypothermia

"To quote Nashold, referring to sympathectomy, "Ill- advised surgery may tend to magnify the entire symptom complex"(38). Sympathectomy is aimed at achieving vasodilation. The neurovascular instability (vacillation and instability of vasoconstrictive function), leads to fluctuation of vasoconstriction alternated with vasodilation in an unstable fashion (39). Following sympathectomy the involved extremity shows regional hyper - and hypothermia in contrast, the blood flow and skin temperature on the non- sympathectomized side are significantly lower after exposure to a cold environment (39). This phenomenon may explain the reason for spread of CRPS. In the first four weeks after sympathectomy, the Laser Doppler flow study shows an increased of blood flow and hyperthermia in the extremity (40). Then, after four weeks, the skin temperature and vascular perfusion slowly decrease and a high amplitude vasomotor constriction develops reversing any beneficial effect of surgery (39). According to Bonica , "about a dozen patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) in whom I have carried out preoperative diagnostic sympathetic block with complete pain relief, sympathectomy produced either partial or no relief (40)"

Chronic Pain

 Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy : Prevention and Management
Front Cover
CRC PressINC, 1993 - Medical - 202 pages

Thursday, December 25, 2014

Despite the simplicity and rapidity of the procedure, some patients experience intense, in some cases persistent, postoperative pain

Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - The incidence of residual pneumothorax after video-assisted sympathectomy with and without pleural drainage and its effect on postoperative pain:

"Anteroposterior chest X-ray in the orthostatic position, while inhaling, was absolutely normal in 18 patients (32.1%), and residual pneumothorax was detected in 17 patients (30.4%). When the patients were separated into two groups (those who had received drainage and those who had not), 25.9% (7 patients) and 34.4% (10 patients), respectively, presented residual pneumothorax, with no difference between the two groups (p = 0.48) (Figure 1).

The additional alterations were laminar atelectasis and emphysema of the subcutaneous cellular tissue.

Chest X-rays in the orthostatic position, while exhaling, revealed residual pneumothorax in 39.3% (22 patients) and was absolutely normal in 25% (14 patients). On the same X-rays, when patients were analyzed separately, residual pneumothorax was seen in 33.3% of the patients who had received drainage (9 patients) and in 44.8% (13 patients) of those who had not, with no difference between the two groups (p = 0.37) (Figure 1).

The low-dose computed tomography scans of the chest detected residual pneumothorax in 76.8% (43 patients). In the patients submitted to postoperative drainage, this rate was 70.3% (19 patients), compared with 82.7% (24 patients) in those without pleural drainage, with no difference between the two groups (p = 0.27) (Figure 1). Therefore, the overall rate of occult pneumothorax (only visible through tomography), revealed on anteroposterior X-rays was 35.7% (20 patients): 48.2% while patients were inhaling and 41.1% while patients were exhaling. The VAS score in the PACU ranged from 0 to 10, with a mean of 2.16 ± 0.35.

Regarding characteristics, 44.6% of the patients reported chest pain upon breathing and 32.1% reported retrosternal pain. The same evaluation performed in the infirmary, during the immediate postoperative period, ranged from 0 to 10, with a mean of 3.75 ± 0.30, being 69.6% of chest pain upon breathing and 78.6% of retrosternal pain. On postoperative day 7, according to VAS, pain ranged from 0 to 10, with a mean of 2.05 ± 0.31; regarding characteristics, it was continuous in 32.1% of the cases, and retrosternal in 26.8%. On postoperative day 28, pain ranged from 0 to 3, with a mean of 0.17 ± 0.08, 7.1% of mechanical rhythm and 5.4% upper posterior."

Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia

Print version ISSN 1806-3713

J. bras. pneumol. vol.34 no.3 São Paulo Mar. 2008


http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-37132008000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Tuesday, December 23, 2014

sympathicotomy may cause a temporary impairment of the caudal-to-rostral hierarchy of thermoregulatory control and changes in microcirculation

Patients with palmar hyperhidrosis have been reported to have a much
more complex dysfunction of autonomic nervous system, involving compensatory high parasympathetic activity as well as sympathetic overactivity (13, 14), suggesting that sympathicotomy initially induces a sympathovagal imbalance with a parasympathetic predominance, and that this is restored on a long-term basis (14). Therefore, thoracic sympathicotomy may cause a temporary impairment of the caudal-to-rostral hierarchy of thermoregulatory control and changes in microcirculation.

The reduction of finger skin temperature on the non-denervated side may be due to either a decrease in the cross-
inhibitory effect or the abnormal control of the inhibitory fibers by the sudomotor center (6).
Vasoconstrictor neurons have been found to be largely under the inhibitory control of various afferent
input systems from the body surface, whereas sudomotor neurons are predominantly under excitatory
control (15). The basic neuronal network for this reciprocal organization is probably located in the spinal level (15). Therefore, the reduction in the contralateral skin temperature may be explained by cross-inhibitory control of various afferent in the spinal cord.
In particular, our study showed that, following bilateral T3 sympathicotomy, the skin temperatures on
the hands increased whereas the skin temperatures on the feet decreased. These findings suggest a
cross-inhibitory control between the upper and lower extremities. However, the pattern of skin
temperature reduction on the feet differed from that on the contralateral hand. The skin temperature on
the feet did not decrease after right T3 sympathicotomy but decreased significantly after bilateral T3
sympathicotomy.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2722005/

Saturday, December 13, 2014

functional abnormality detected in the small airway of patients who underwent bilateral dorsal sympathectomy to treat primary hyperhidrosis is still present 3 years after surgery

The main observation of our study was that the functional abnormality detected in the small airway of patients who underwent bilateral dorsal sympathectomy to treat primary hyperhidrosis is still present 3 years after surgery, although the patients remain clinically asymptomatic.
Studies to date evaluate alterations in lung function at 1, 3, and 6 months after sympathectomy. Only 1 recent study provides data 1 year after surgery. Ponce González et al10 studied a group of 37 patients who underwent forced spirometry before surgery, and at 3 months and 1 year after surgery. They observed a decrease in FVC, FEV1, and FEF25%-75% at 3 months, although FVC returned to baseline values at 12 months, whereas FEV1 and FEF25%-75% remained significantly low (-2.8% and -11.2%, respectively). These findings are consistent with ours, and corroborate the persistence of minimal bronchial obstruction 3 years after surgery. This appears to be associated with the influence of the sympathetic nervous system on bronchomotor tone.
As previously mentioned, the airway is innervated mainly by the parasympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic innervation, although scant, indirectly affects motor tone and could have caused the mild residual obstructive pattern after surgery. Despite the doubtful role of the sympathetic nervous system in the lung, a series of physiologic studies show the effect of sympathetic nervous activity after bilateral dorsal sympathectomy.11,12 The first was by Noppen and Vincken4, who compared the results of lung function studies (spirometry, diffusion, and lung volumes using plethysmography) in 7 patients before dorsal sympathectomy performed using VATS, at 6 weeks, and at 6 months (previous studies had been performed using invasive techniques [thoracotomy]). A statistically significant decrease was observed in FEV1, FEF25%-75%, and total lung capacity 6 weeks after surgery. At 6 months, the authors again evaluated the 35 patients and found that total lung capacity had returned to normal values, whereas FEF25%-75% remained low. They attributed the permanent decrease in FEF25%-75% to the sympathetic denervation produced by surgery, and stressed that, in patients with primary hyperhidrosis, bronchomotor tone is influenced by the sympathetic nervous system. This contrasts with the common opinion that motor tone in the airway is not affected by this system. Both the study by Ponce González et al,10 who evaluated their patients at 1 year, and our study, in which we evaluated patients at 3 years, show that persistence of the decrease in FEF25%-75% over time is related more to sympatholysis of the ganglia than to VATS.

http://www.archbronconeumol.org/en/bilateral-dorsal-sympathectomy-for-the/articulo/13147806/

Wednesday, December 3, 2014

Effect of ganglion blockade on cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine

Prevention of ganglion blockade-induced hypotension using phenylephrine did not prevent the decrease in CSF NE caused by trimethaphan, and when phenylephrine was discontinued, the resulting hypotension was not associated with increases in CSF NE. The similar decreases in plasma NE and CSF NE during ganglionic blockade, and the abolition of reflexive increases in CSF NE during hypotension in ganglion-blocked subjects, cast doubt on the hypothesis that CSF NE indicates central noradrenergic tone and are consistent instead with at least partial derivation of CSF NE from postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings.


 http://www.mendeley.com/research/effect-of-ganglion-blockade-on-cerebrospinal-fluid-norepinephrine/

Monday, December 1, 2014

"Similar low values are observed in patients with sympathectomy and in patients with tetraplegia"

"Patients with progressive autonomic dysfunction (including diabetes) have little or no increase in plasma noradrenaline and this correlates with their orthostatic intolerance (Bannister, Sever and Gross, 1977). In patients with pure autonomic failure, basal levels of noradrenaline are lower than in normal subjects (Polinsky, 1988). Similar low values are observed in patients with sympathectomy and in patients with tetraplegia. (p.51)

The finger wrinkling response is abolished by upper thoracic sympathectomy. The test is also abnormal in some patients with diabetic autonomic dysfunction, the Guillan-Barre syndrome and other peripheral sympathetic dysfunction in limbs. (p.46)

Other causes of autonomic dysfunction without neurological signs include medications, acute autonomic failure, endocrine disease, surgical sympathectomy . (p.100)

Anhidrosis is the usual effect of destruction of sympathetic supply to the face. However about 35% of patients with sympathetic devervation of the face, acessory fibres (reaching the face through the trigeminal system) become hyperactive and hyperhidrosis occurs, occasionally causing the interesting phenomenon of alternating hyperhidrosis and Horner's Syndrome (Ottomo and Heimburger, 1980). (p.159)



Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System
By David Robertson, Italo Biaggioni
Edition: illustrated
Published by Informa Health Care, 1995
ISBN 3718651467, 9783718651467"




Sunday, November 30, 2014

"Sympathectomy is a destructive procedure that interrupts the sympathetic nervous system"

Cervico-thoracic or lumbar sympathectomy for neuropathic pain | Cochrane Summaries: "Sympathectomy is a destructive procedure that interrupts the sympathetic nervous system. Chemical sympathectomies use alcohol or phenol injections to destroy sympathetic nervous tissue (the so-called "sympathetic chain" of nerve ganglia). Surgical ablation can be performed by open removal or electrocoagulation (destruction of tissue with high-frequency electrical current) of the sympathetic chain, or by minimally invasive procedures using thermal or laser interruption. Nerve regeneration commonly occurs following both surgical or chemical ablation, but may take longer with surgical ablation.

This systematic review found only one small study (20 participants) of good methodological quality, which reported no significant difference between surgical and chemical sympathectomy for relieving neuropathic pain. Potentially serious complications of sympathectomy are well documented in the literature, and one (neuralgia) occurred in this study.

The practice of sympathectomy for treating neuropathic pain is based on very weak evidence. Furthermore, complications of the procedure may be significant."



'via Blog this'

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Stellate ganglion block alleviates anxiety, depression

Among veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder, treatment with a single stellate ganglion block could help alleviate anxiety, depression and psychological pain rapidly and for long-term use, according to results presented at the American Society for Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting.
Researchers performed a single right-sided stellate ganglion block (SGB) using 7 mL of 2% lidocaine and 0.25% bupivacaine under fluoroscopic guidance on 12 veterans with military-related, chronic extreme post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with hyperarousal symptoms. At baseline, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months post-block, PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score and the Post-traumatic Stress Self Report (PSS-SR) scale. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory version 2. Anxiety related symptoms with a generalized anxiety scale score and the State-Trait Anxiety Index and psychological pain with the Mee-Bunney scale.
Study results showed the block was greatly effective in 75% of participants, with a positive effects taking effect often within minutes of SGB. At week 1, there was significant reduction of both CAPS and PSS-SR and researchers found CAPS approached normal-to-mild PTSD levels by 1 month. Anxiety, depression and psychological pain scores also were significantly reduced by the block, according to study results. Overall, positive effects remained evident at 3 months, but were generally gone by 6 months.
Reference:
Alkire MT. A1046. Presented at: American Society for Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting;  Oct. 11-15, 2014; New Orleans.